11 Mar Whole body vibration From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Whole body vibration
Whole body vibration may refer to vibration training, also known as vibration therapy, biomechanical stimulation (BMS), and biomechanical oscillation (BMO), a training method employing low amplitude, low frequency mechanical stimulation to exercise musculoskeletal structures for the improvement of muscle strength, power, and flexibility. Vibration training has been advocated as a therapeutic method in the treatment of osteoperosis, sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome, and is used in the fitness industry, physical therapy, rehabilitation, professional sports, and beauty and wellness applications.Whole body vibration may also refer to the vibration exposures found in many occupational settings such as heavy construction, forklift operation, vehicle operation, and farming. Occupational WBV exposure, especially when chronic, is suspected to cause adverse health effects such as fatigue, lower back pain, vision problems, interference with or irritation to the lungs, abdomen, or bladder, and adverse effects to the digestive, genital/urinary, and female reproductive systems. Mandatory standards for regulation and monitoring of worker exposure to WBV exist in Europe; in the U.S., there are reference standards but no specific regulations.
In the 1880s and 1890s, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg was utilizing vibrating chairs, platforms and bars at his Battle Creek, Michigan sanitarium. These methods were part of his “wellness” strategies for inpatient and outpatient populations.
The immediate predecessor of modern vibration training is Rhythmic Neuromuscular Stimulation (RNS). In former East Germany Dr. Biermann was experimenting with the use of cyclic massage and its effects on trunk flexion back in the sixties (Biermann, 1960).
In that same era the Russian scientist Nazarov translated these findings into practical uses for athletes. He observed a substantial increase in flexibility and strength after the application of vibrations in the athletes he studied (Kunnemeyer & Smidtbleicher, 1997). The Russians also carried out experiments with “Biomechanical Stimulation” for the benefit of their athletes as well as in their space program. Unlike WBV devices on which the user stands, Biomechanical Stimulation uses vibration stimulation directly on muscles or tendons.
Due to the lack of gravity in space, astronauts and cosmonauts exhibited muscle atrophy (muscle impairment) and bone loss, which forces them to return to earth rather quickly. For rehabilitation after prolonged space flights. The European Space Agency is experimenting with various types of vibration training systems as a supplement to other fitness training.
Vibrating platform types
Vibrating platforms fall into different, distinct categories. The type of platform used is a moderator of the effect and result of the training or therapy performed (Marin PJ, Rhea MR, 2010). Main categories of machine types are: 1. High Energy Lineal, found mostly in commercial vibration training studios and gyms. The vibration direction is lineal/upward eliciting a strong stretch-reflex contraction in muscle fibres targeted by the positions of training program. 2. Premium Speed Pivotal, (teeter-totter movement) used for physiotherapy work at lower speeds and exercise workouts at “premium” speed, up to 30 Hz. Both commercial and home units are available. 3. Medium Energy Lineal, the majority of lineal platforms produced. These are usually made of plastic; some have 3-D vibration which is low quality. They give slower and less consistent results. 4. Low Speed Pivotal units. These can give “therapy” benefits. Other machine types are low Energy/Low amplitude lineal and Low energy/High amplitude lineal with varying uses from osteoporosis prevention, therapy for improved blood circulation and flexibility and limited fitness training.
In order to elicit a stretch reflex in the muscles, the major contributing factor to the training results that can be achieved with vibrating platforms, the up-down movement is the most important. The platform is vibrated upwards to work directly against gravity and therefore is called “hyper-gravity”. High Energy Lineal Machines can overload the muscles up to 6 times(6G)in the upward phase; meaning the person on the platform is weight training using their own body mass.
The training frequency (Hz) is another of the important factors involved. The human body is designed to absorb vertical vibrations better due to the effects of gravity; however, many machines vibrate in more than one direction: sideways (x), front and back (y) and up and down (z). The z-axis has the largest amplitude and is the most defining component in generating and inducing muscle contractions.
- Side alternating (pivotal) systems, operating like a see-saw and hence mimicking the human gait where one foot is always moving upwards and the other one downwards, and
- Linear systems where the whole platform is mainly doing the same motion, respectively: both feet are moved upwards or downwards at the same time.
Systems with side alternation usually offer a larger amplitude of oscillation and a frequency range of about 5 Hz to 35 Hz. Linear/upright systems offer lower amplitudes but higher frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to 50 Hz. Despite the larger amplitudes of side-alternating systems, the vibration (acceleration) transmitted to the head is significantly smaller than in non side-alternating systems (Abercromby et al. 2007). This difference can be a determining factor when choosing a platform for therapy versus training effects.
Mechanical stimulation generates acceleration forces acting on the body. These forces cause the muscles to lengthen, and this signal is received by the muscle spindle, a small organ in the muscle. This spindle transmits the signal through the central nervous system to the muscles involved (Abercromby et al. 2007, Burkhardt 2006).
Due to this subconscious contraction of the muscles, many more muscle fibers are used than in a conscious, voluntary movement (Issurin & Tenenbaum 1999). This is also obvious from the heightened EMG activity (Bosco et al. 1999, Delecluse et al. 2003).
Immediate and short term
More motor units (and the correlating muscle fibers) are activated under the influence of vibration than in normal, conscious muscle contractions. Due to this, muscles are incited more efficiently (Paradisis & Zacharogiannis 2007; Lamont et al. 2006; Cormie et al. 2006; Bosco et al. 1999, 2000; Rittweger 2001, 2002; Abercromby et al. 2005; Amonette et al. 2005). The immediate effect of WBV is therefore that the muscles can be used quickly and efficiently, rendering them capable of producing more force. However, this process will only be effective if the stimulus is not too intense and does not last too long, because otherwise performance will diminish due to fatigue.
Another immediate effect of WBV is an improvement of circulation. The rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles at 20 to 50 times per second basically works as a pump on the blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, increasing the speed of the blood flow through the body (Kerschan-Schindl et al. 2001; Lohman et al. 2007). Subjects often experience this as a tingling, prickling, warm sensation in the skin. Both Stewart (2005) and Oliveri (1989) describe the appearance of vasodilatation (widening of the blood vessels) as a result of vibration.
In order to have any effect on the body in the long term it is vital that the body systems experience fatigue or some sort of light stress. As in other kinds of training, when the body is overloaded repeatedly and regularly, the principle of supercompensation applies. This principle is the cause of the body adapting to loading. In other words: performance will increase.
This effect has been proven several times in scientific research for both young and elderly subjects (Roelants et al. 2004, Delecluse et al. 2003, Verschueren et al. 2004, Paradisis et al. 2007). The only placebo-controlled study to date (Delecluse et al. 2003) concluded “specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes”. Therefore there is no clear indication that the vibrations actually do have added value when performing static exercises.
From research into the structural effects of vibration training it can be deduced that the increased strength resulting from WBV training can definitely be compared to the results that can be attained with conventional methods of training. But there are indications that better results may be achieved with WBV in the area of explosive power (Delecluse et al. 2003).
Another important difference between conventional training methods and WBV is that there is only a minimum of loading. No additional weights are necessary, which ensures that there is very little loading to passive structures such as bones, ligaments and joints. That is why WBV is highly suited to people that are difficult to train due to old age, illness, disorders, weight or injury. On the other hand, it is also highly suitable for professional athletes who want to stimulate and strengthen their muscles without overloading joints and the rest of the physical system (Cochrane et al. 2005; Mahieu et al. 2006).
Other than its influence on the muscles, WBV can also have a positive effect on bone mineral density. Vibrations cause compression and remodeling of the bone tissue Mechanostat, activating the osteoblasts (bone building cells), while reducing the activity of the osteoclasts (cells that break bone down). Repeated stimulation of this system, combined with the increased pull on the bones by the muscles, will increase bone mineral density over time. It is also likely that improved circulation and the related bone perfusion due to a better supply of nutrients, which are also more able to penetrate the bone tissue, are contributing factors (Verschueren 2004, Jordan 2005, Olof Johnell & John Eisman, 2004, Rubin et al. 2004).
Furthermore the Berlin Bedrest Study (BBR) proved that 10 minutes of vibration training 6 times a week prevented muscle and bone loss in total bedrest over 55 days (Rittweger et al. 2004, Felsenberg et al. 2004, Bleeker et al. 2005, Blottner et al. 2006).
In preventing falls and the bone fractures that often result from them, enhancing bone mineral density is not the only important issue. Increased muscle power, postural control and balance are also factors worthy of consideration. Studies involving elderly subjects have shown that all of these issues can be improved using whole body vibration (Roelants et al. 2004, Bautmans et al. 2005, Bogaerts et al. 2007, Kawanabe et al. 2007).
Although much research has covered these areas (bone mineral density, circulation etc.), research currently only suggests an effect on weight loss when also reducing caloric intake. It is also not clear that the effects of Whole Body Vibration can give similar results as that of regular exercise. In reality, vibration machines are not a replacement for weight loss and healthy living, and those under this impression are at a risk of neglecting their health. A study by Roelants et al. (2004) found that 24 weeks of whole body vibration did “not reduce weight, total body fat or subcutaneous fat in previously untrained females.”
Much of the information that is made available to the general public with regards to the effects of whole body vibration is provided by infomercials or advertisements from the companies promoting vibration machines. However, it is crucial[according to whom?] that the public be skeptical in assessing these claims, especially because it concerns one’s health. It is likely that the claimants’ personal beliefs and biases drive the conclusions that they present to the public. Companies promoting the machines are unlikely to pay advertising costs to express the neutral or negative effects of whole body vibration; only the beneficial effects will be noted. However, it is also important[according to whom?] not to always believe what is advertised. This is especially true when it does not fit with what we[who?] know about the world and how it works. Everyone has heard that eating right and exercising often is a key to healthy living. However, in today’s society especially, many people look for an easy way out. When a machine claims to give you a one-hour workout in just ten minutes, it is important to trust the literal statement that it is simply “too good to be true”. While benefits of circulation and bone density may occur, dramatic weight loss or the ability to supplement vibration technology for traditional exercises and receive the same results is highly unlikely.
Another important point to mention is that vibration technology can also cause harm. Rather than presenting studies that disprove the positive claims regarding vibration technology, advertising presents only confirmatory information. However, it is likely that there can be some danger associated with using vibration technology. Studies have found that the most concerning long-term effect of whole-body vibration is damage to the spine. For this reason it is important to practice safety if one is going to participate in whole body vibration. The most important point here is that, when one’s own health is on the line, special precaution should be taken to ensure that you have all the necessary information to prevent injury.
A study on previous research findings completed in July 2012 found that no causality can be shown between whole-body vibration and abnormal spinal imaging findings.
- ^ a b Paschold, Helmut W. and Mayton, Alan G. (2011). “Whole-Body Vibration: Building Awareness in SH&E.” Professional Safety 56: 30–35.
- ^ Albasini, Alfio; Krause, Martin; and Rembitzki, Ingo. (2010). Using Whole Body Vibration in Physical Therapy and Sport: Clinical Practice and Treatment Exercises. London: Churchill Livingstone.
- ^ Biermann, W.. “Influence of cycloid vibration massage on trunk flexion”. American Journal of Physical Medicine 1960 (39): 219–224.
- ^ Kunnemeyer J, Schmidtbleicher D.: Die neuromuskulaire stimulation RNS, Leistungssport 2: 39-42, 1997.
- ^ “Mars 500 Scientific Protocols”. European Space Agency. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- ^ a b Marín, PJ; Rhea, MR (2010). “Effects of vibration training on muscle power: a meta-analysis.”. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 24 (3): 871–8. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c7c6f0. PMID 20145554.
- ^ Rittweger, J (2010). “Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be.”. European journal of applied physiology 108 (5): 877–904. doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1303-3. PMID 20012646.
- ^ Rauch, F; Sievanen, H; Boonen, S; Cardinale, M; Degens, H; Felsenberg, D; Roth, J; Schoenau, E et al. (2010). “Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions.”. Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 10 (3): 193–8. PMID 20811143.
- ^ a b Abercromby, AF; Amonette, WE; Layne, CS; McFarlin, BK; Hinman, MR; Paloski, WH (2007). “Vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during whole-body vibration training.”. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 39 (10): 1794–800. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3181238a0f. PMID 17909407.
- ^ Burkhardt A.: Vibrationstraining in der Physiotherapie – Wippen mit Wirkung, Physiopraxis 9/06, s.22.25, 2006
- ^ Issurin, VB; Tenenbaum, G (1999). “Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes.”. Journal of sports sciences 17 (3): 177–82. doi:10.1080/026404199366073. PMID 10362384.
- ^ a b Bosco, C; Cardinale, M; Tsarpela, O (1999). “Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles.”. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology 79 (4): 306–11. doi:10.1007/s004210050512. PMID 10090628.
- ^ a b c d Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Verschueren, S (2003). “Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training.”. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 35 (6): 1033–41. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000069752.96438.B0. PMID 12783053.
- ^ a b Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S (2005). “Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.”. International journal of sports medicine 26 (8): 662–8. doi:10.1055/s-2004-830381. PMID 16158372.
- ^ Lamont, Cramer, Gayaud, Acree, Bemben: Effects of different vibration interventions on indices of counter movement vertical jump performance in college aged males, Poster presentation ACSM, 2006
- ^ Cormie, P; Deane, RS; Triplett, NT; McBride, JM (2006). “Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power.”. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 20 (2): 257–61. doi:10.1519/R-17835.1. PMID 16686550.
- ^ Bosco, C; Iacovelli, M; Tsarpela, O; Cardinale, M; Bonifazi, M; Tihanyi, J; Viru, M; De Lorenzo, A et al. (2000). “Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men.”. European journal of applied physiology 81 (6): 449–54. PMID 10774867.
- ^ Rittweger, J; Schiessl, H; Felsenberg, D (2001). “Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement.”. European journal of applied physiology 86 (2): 169–73. doi:10.1007/s004210100511. PMID 11822476.
- ^ Rittweger, J; Ehrig, J; Just, K; Mutschelknauss, M; Kirsch, KA; Felsenberg, D (2002). “Oxygen uptake in whole-body vibration exercise: influence of vibration frequency, amplitude, and external load.”. International journal of sports medicine 23 (6): 428–32. doi:10.1055/s-2002-33739. PMID 12215962.
- ^ Abercromby, Amonette, Paloski, Hinman: Effect of knee flexion angle on neuromuscular responses to whole-body vibration, Abstract presented at NSCA National Conference, July 2005
- ^ Amonette, W., A. Abercromby, M. Hinman, W.H. Paloski: Neuromuscular responses to two whole-body vibration modalities during dynamic squats, Abstract presented at NSCA National Conference, July 2005
- ^ Kerschan-Schindl, K; Grampp, S; Henk, C; Resch, H; Preisinger, E; Fialka-Moser, V; Imhof, H (2001). “Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume.”. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) 21 (3): 377–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2281.2001.00335.x. PMID 11380538.
- ^ Lohman Eb, 3rd; Petrofsky, JS; Maloney-Hinds, C; Betts-Schwab, H; Thorpe, D (2007). “The effect of whole body vibration on lower extremity skin blood flow in normal subjects.”. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 13 (2): CR71–6. PMID 17261985.
- ^ Stewart, JM; Karman, C; Montgomery, LD; McLeod, KJ (2005). “Plantar vibration improves leg fluid flow in perimenopausal women.”. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 288 (3): R623–9. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00513.2004. PMID 15472009.
- ^ Oliveri, DJ; Lynn, K; Hong, CZ (1989). “Increased skin temperature after vibratory stimulation.”. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 68 (2): 81–5. PMID 2930643.
- ^ a b Roelants, M; Delecluse, C; Verschueren, SM (2004). “Whole-body-vibration training increases knee-extension strength and speed of movement in older women.”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 52 (6): 901–8. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52256.x. PMID 15161453.
- ^ a b Verschueren, SM; Roelants, M; Delecluse, C; Swinnen, S; Vanderschueren, D; Boonen, S (2004). “Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study.”. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 19 (3): 352–9. doi:10.1359/JBMR.0301245. PMID 15040822.
- ^ Cochrane, DJ; Stannard, SR (2005). “Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players.”. British journal of sports medicine 39 (11): 860–5. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.019950. PMC 1725065. PMID 16244199.
- ^ Mahieu, NN; Witvrouw, E; Van De Voorde, D; Michilsens, D; Arbyn, V; Van Den Broecke, W (2006). “Improving strength and postural control in young skiers: whole-body vibration versus equivalent resistance training.”. Journal of athletic training 41 (3): 286–93. PMC 1569559. PMID 17043697.
- ^ Frost H.M.: The Utah Paradigm of Skeletal Physiology Vol. 1, ISMNI ISMNI, 1960
- ^ Frost H.M.: The Utah Paradigm of Skeletal Physiology Vol. 2, ISMNI ISMNI, 1960
- ^ Frost, HM (1997). “Defining osteopenias and osteoporoses: another view (with insights from a new paradigm).”. Bone 20 (5): 385–91. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(97)00019-7. PMID 9145234.
- ^ Felsenberg D.: Struktur und Funktion des Knochens. Pharmazie in unserer Zeit 30(6), S. 488 – 493 (2001), ISSN 0048-3664
- ^ Jordan, J (2005). “Good vibrations and strong bones?”. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 288 (3): R555–6. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00799.2004. PMID 15699358.
- ^ Johnell, O; Eisman, J (2004). “Whole lotta shakin’ goin’ on.”. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 19 (8): 1205–7. doi:10.1359/JBMR.0315011. PMID 15231005.
- ^ Rubin, C; Recker, R; Cullen, D; Ryaby, J; McCabe, J; McLeod, K (2004). “Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss by a low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical stimuli: a clinical trial assessing compliance, efficacy, and safety.”. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 19 (3): 343–51. doi:10.1359/JBMR.0301251. PMID 15040821.
- ^ Rittweger J., Felsenberg D.: Resistive vibration exercise prevents bone loss during 8 weeks of strict bed rest in healthy male subjects: results from the Berlin Bed Rest (BBR) study, 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research; October 2004; Seattle
- ^ Felsenberg D.: Ergebnisse der Berliner BedRest-Studie, Knochen & Muskel – Neue Welten, 18 November 2004, ZMK, Charite Berlin>
- ^ Bleeker, MW; De Groot, PC; Rongen, GA; Rittweger, J; Felsenberg, D; Smits, P; Hopman, MT (2005). “Vascular adaptation to deconditioning and the effect of an exercise countermeasure: results of the Berlin Bed Rest study.”. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 99 (4): 1293–300. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00118.2005. PMID 15932956.
- ^ Blottner, D; Salanova, M; Püttmann, B; Schiffl, G; Felsenberg, D; Buehring, B; Rittweger, J (2006). “Human skeletal muscle structure and function preserved by vibration muscle exercise following 55 days of bed rest.”. European journal of applied physiology 97 (3): 261–71. doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0160-6. PMID 16568340.
- ^ Bautmans, I; Van Hees, E; Lemper, JC; Mets, T (2005). “The feasibility of Whole Body Vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial ISRCTN62535013.”. BMC geriatrics 5: 17. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-5-17. PMC 1368976. PMID 16372905.
- ^ Bogaerts, A; Verschueren, S; Delecluse, C; Claessens, AL; Boonen, S (2007). “Effects of whole body vibration training on postural control in older individuals: a 1 year randomized controlled trial.”. Gait & posture 26 (2): 309–16. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.09.078. PMID 17074485.
- ^ Kawanabe, K; Kawashima, A; Sashimoto, I; Takeda, T; Sato, Y; Iwamoto, J (2007). “Effect of whole-body vibration exercise and muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises on walking ability in the elderly.”. The Keio journal of medicine 56 (1): 28–33. doi:10.2302/kjm.56.28. PMID 17392595.
- ^ Laskowsk M.D., Edward. “Whole body vibration: An effective workout?”. Fitness. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- ^ Bible JE, Choemprayong S, O’Neill KR, Devin CJ, Spengler DM.. “Whole-Body Vibration: Is There a Casual Relationship to Specific Imaging Findings of the Spine?”. Vanderbilt Orthopaedic Institute, Nashville, TN. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
Recommendations for reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies
- Rauch F, Sievanen H, Boonen S, Cardinale M, Degens H, Felsenberg D, Roth J, Schoenau E, Verschueren S, Rittweger J (September 2010). “Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions”. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 10 (3): 193–8. PMID 20811143.
- Albasini, Alfio; Krause, Martin; and Rembitzki, Ingo. (2010). Using Whole Body Vibration in Physical Therapy and Sport: Clinical Practice and Treatment Exercises. London: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-7020-3173-1.
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (1997). ISO 2631-1:1997. Mechanical shock and vibration: Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration — Part 1: General requirements. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.
- Mansfield, Neil J. (2005). Human Response to Vibration. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-28239-X.
- Berlin BedRest-Study 1 – Zentrum für Muskel und Knochen (ZMK) Charité, Berlin, sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA)